Norwegian Salmon: A Deep Dive into Norway’s Finest Fish

Norwegian salmon on a plate with garnish

Discover the fascinating world of Norwegian salmon, one of Norway’s most prized culinary treasures. Get ready to uncover the journey this renowned fish takes from the rivers and seas of Norway to dinner plates worldwide.

Norwegians and Their Rich Fishing Heritage

For centuries, the Norwegian people have thrived on fishing. With its extensive coastline, Norway is blessed with abundant opportunities for fishing and aquaculture, contributing significantly to the nation’s identity and economy.


Despite Norway’s small population, it captures around 2% of the world’s fish annually. This impressive feat highlights the Norwegians’ love for fish. However, since they can’t consume everything they catch, approximately 35% is exported globally. Thanks to Norway’s pristine waters, fish caught in the country are highly sought after around the world.

Among Norway’s many seafood exports, Atlantic Salmon reigns supreme. Approximately 40% of all seafood exported from Norway is salmon, accounting for nearly 68% of its total value.

Embracing the Flavors of Norwegian Salmon

Salmon is incredibly versatile and packed with protein, making it a healthy culinary choice. In Norway, there are various ways to savor this delightful fish.

Salmon in Fish Soup

Embrace Norwegian cuisine by indulging in a comforting bowl of fish soup, known as “Fiskesuppe.” Made with a combination of salmon, cod, potatoes, and other vegetables, this creamy delight is especially popular during the winter months.

Gravlax: Norwegian Cured Salmon

A beloved Scandinavian delicacy, gravlax, is a treat for the taste buds. This dish features salmon cured with dill, salt, and sugar. You can create your own gravlax at home by adding dill, salt, and sugar to salmon fillets, then refrigerating them for a few days, turning them regularly. For a traditional Norwegian twist, serve it with mustard sauce, a luscious vinaigrette made with mustard, oil, vinegar, and dill.

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Norwegian salmon and dill

Salmon for Breakfast and Lunch

Start your day with a luxurious breakfast by topping scrambled eggs with smoked salmon on a slice or two of bread or toast. For a delightful lunch, enjoy salmon as delicious pålegg, the perfect open sandwich topping, or in a mouthwatering Laks wrap.

Salmon Sushi

Norway has also embraced international influences, and you’ll find Japanese-style salmon sashimi on menus in Oslo. You can also indulge in pan-fried, poached, or roasted salmon with European ingredients. The Norwegians wholly embrace the versatility and flavors of salmon!

Unveiling the Secrets of Norwegian Salmon

Atlantic Salmon, scientifically known as Salmo Salar, is distinct from other salmon species. While the term “Pacific Salmon” encompasses various species, Atlantic Salmon consists solely of Salmo Salar.

The name “salmon” likely originates from the Latin word “salire,” meaning to leap, referring to the fish’s characteristic leaping action as it swims upstream.

Salmon are classified as anadromous fish, meaning they spawn in fresh water, grow in saltwater, and return to fresh water to spawn again. Most salmon return to the same place they were born to reproduce. Sadly, after spawning, the majority of adults rapidly deteriorate and die, with only a few surviving to spawn again.

It typically takes around four years for salmon to go from hatching to spawning, with half of that time spent in fresh water and the other half in the sea. Adult salmon can reach sizes of about 1m (3ft) in length and weigh around 20kg (44lbs), although the largest recorded salmon was a whopping 1.74m (5ft8) long and weighed 33kg (72lbs)!

with roe

The Epic Journey from River to Sea

Salmon begin their lives as alevin or sack fry, sustaining themselves from their yolk sac. They quickly develop into parr, sporting vertical stripes to blend into their surroundings. After approximately 18 months, the parr lose their stripes and transform into smolts, ready to embark on their journey to the sea.

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Roughly 10% of hatched fish survive to become smolts. These smolts undergo hormonal and chemical changes, adapting to a life in saltwater. During their second spring, as the water warms up, they migrate to the sea.

Following their first winter at sea, some eager young salmon, known as grilse, begin migrating to the spawning grounds. Although young, they can compete with adult males to fertilize the next generation. The majority of salmon, however, remain in the sea for another year, feeding on other fish, seafood, and krill, while preparing for their arduous journey upstream. As they mature, they often develop a hump and darken in color.

Eventually, these determined fish make their way back into the rivers, swimming against the currents and overcoming obstacles such as dams. The migration can span hundreds of miles. Once they reach the spawning grounds, females create nests called “Redds,” depositing their eggs and allowing males to fertilize them. The females then cover the eggs with gravel, providing protection from predators.

At this stage, most adults succumb to nature, although a few may survive to spawn again. The eggs hatch, completing the awe-inspiring circle of life.

Unveiling Salmon Farming Practices

Although the wild salmon journey described above is awe-inspiring, the majority of Atlantic Salmon is actually farmed rather than caught in the wild. Since the 1970s, salmon farming has played a significant role in salmon production. What started slowly quickly gained momentum, surpassing wild-caught salmon production every year since 1996.

Fish farm off the coast of Norway

Salmon farming takes place in large tanks moored off the Norwegian coast. It is a thriving industry, with over 60% of the salmon consumed globally being farmed, and a considerable portion of that originating from Norway. In fact, Norway has been the world’s largest producer of farmed salmon since the mid-80s.

The Safety of Norwegian Salmon

Norway’s aquaculture industry operates within stringent regulatory frameworks, ensuring sustainable practices and minimal environmental impact.

While concerns about health risks associated with farmed salmon and potential environmental damage exist, Norway has taken significant measures to address these issues. The Norwegian Seafood Council reports that an independent institute inspects around 14,000 export-ready Norwegian salmon each year. Remarkably, none of these inspections have ever detected prohibited medication or illegal substances in the fish.

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The use of antibiotics in salmon farming has been drastically reduced. However, controversy arose in 2020 when lower-grade fish from Norwegian salmon farms were allowed for export.

Salmon with asparagus

Previously, pollution posed a significant challenge in aquaculture. Alv Arne Lyse, a fisheries biologist at the Norwegian Association of Hunters and Anglers, stated that pollution is now under control. The only remaining threats are the genetic impact caused by escaped fish and sea lice.

The Plight of Wild Salmon

Salmon farming, though not perfect, has come a long way since its inception in the 1970s. Unfortunately, human activities have taken a severe toll on wild salmon populations, pushing some to the brink of extinction.

Efforts to conserve salmon have been in place since the late 11th century, but with limited success. Overfishing, pollution, and climate change are among the factors contributing to the decline of salmon populations. Rising ocean temperatures affect the species that salmon rely on for sustenance.

Salmon rivers, once teeming with these magnificent fish, are now heavily regulated and monitored. Despite these efforts, the collapse of salmon populations persists.

Norwegian Salmon: A Global Delicacy

Norwegian salmon is exported in four different forms: fresh whole salmon, frozen whole salmon, frozen salmon fillets, and fresh salmon fillets, with fresh whole salmon comprising the majority of exports.

Plate of sashimi, salmon sushi

While the proportion of exports fluctuates throughout the year, approximately 85% of Norwegian salmon exports consist of fresh whole salmon. Frozen whole salmon accounts for around 10%, and fresh or frozen fillets make up the remaining 5%. Norwegian salmon finds its way to 140 countries worldwide, providing an astonishing 14 million meals each day!

In 2020, despite the global health crisis, Norway’s salmon exports fared relatively well. While demand for whole fish declined due to restaurant and hospitality closures, more people chose to purchase and prepare salmon fillets at home. The exceptional quality of Norwegian salmon helped shield the industry from more significant disruptions experienced by other exporting countries.

Now it’s your turn to weigh in! Do you enjoy Norwegian salmon? Share your thoughts in the comments below.